1. Diagram of the Danish higher education system

2. Types of higher educational institutions

National name
English name
Quality assuranceNQF / EQFTypes of qualifications offered
ErhvervsakademiBusiness academyThe Danish Accreditation Institution5-6/5-6Academy Profession (AP) degree, Professional Bachelor’s degree.
ProfessionshøjskoleUniversity collegesThe Danish Accreditation Institution6/6Professional Bachelor’s degree
UniversitetUniversityThe Danish Accreditation Institution6-8/6-8Professional Bachelor’s degree, Bachelor’s degree, Master’s degree, PhD degree
Kunstnerisk uddannelsesinstitutionInstitutions in architecture and artThe Danish Accreditation Institution6-8/6-8Bachelor’s degree, Master’s degree
Maritim uddannelsesinstitutionMaritime educational institutionsThe Danish Accreditation Institution-6/-6Professional Bachelor’s degree

3. Types of higher education

Qualification in EnglishEQF level / CycleLength or ECTSAccess requirementAccess to further study
ErhvervsakademigradAcademy profession degree5 / Short cycle90-150 ECTSUpper secondary or VETMay give access to top-up professional bachelor’s programmes
BachelorgradBachelor’s degree6 / First cycle180 ECTSUpper SecondaryMaster’s degrees
ProfessionsbachelorgradProfessional bachelor’s degree6 / First cycle180-270 ECTSUpper SecondaryMaster’s degrees
KandidatgradMaster’s degree7 / Second cycle120-180 ECTSA bachelor’s degree or a professional bachelor’s degreePh.D. Degree
Ph.d.-gradPhD degree8 / Third cycle180 ECTSA master’s degreen/a

3.1. Adult and continuing higher education

In Denmark there are two different pathways in higher education. One pathway is the ordinary formal higher education system aimed at students coming with general upper secondary qualifications, while the second pathway is aimed at adults with at least two years of relevant work experience (called adult/continuing higher education). The Academy Profession degree within adult/continuing higher education is awarded after studies at short cycle level and gives access to diploma programmes. The Diploma degree (diplomuddannelse) is awarded after studies at first cycle level and gives access to master programmes. The Master degree (masteruddannelse) is awarded after studies at second cycle level, but does not give access to PhD. The ordinary system includes the degrees mentioned in the table above.

The programmes normally consist of 2 years of part-time study (60 ECTS credits). Certain master programmes require 90 ECTS credits. Degrees in the adult/continuing education system are in general professionally oriented and aimed at developing professional practice and management competences within the different subject areas.

4. Qualifications framework

The qualification levels form the basis for the Danish National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education, which is certified in accordance with the overarching Bologna Framework according to the principles adopted by the European Ministers of Higher Education. Danish higher education qualifications at levels 5-8 of the Danish Qualifications framework for Lifelong Learning (NQF) are also compatible with levels 5-8 of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF).

5. Quality assurance and accreditation

Accreditation is mandatory for all institutions of higher education and a precondition for attaining public funding.

With the Accreditation Act of 2013, the system has gradually switched from accreditation of individual programmes to accreditation of entire education institutions. During a transitional period, there continues to be accreditation of existing and new programmes offered by education institutions that have not yet obtained a positive institutional accreditation.

Denmark has implemented the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG), and all public higher education study programmes must meet these international quality and relevance standards.

The Danish Qualifications Framework has been incorporated into the quality criteria of the accreditation system.

For more information see:

6. Upper secondary qualifications giving access to higher education

NameSpecialisationFurther study
Higher General Examination (studentereksamen, STX)General education and general study preparationAll short and first cycle programmes
Higher Preparatory Examination (højere forberedelseseksamen, HF)General study preparationProfessionally-oriented short and first cycle programmes, i.e. Academy Profession and Professional Bachelor’s programmes
Higher Preparatory Examination, addition courses included (højere forberedelseseksamen, HF, med overbygning)General study preparationAll short and first cycle programmes
Higher Technical Examination (teknisk studentereksamen, HTX)Focuses on subjects related to the fields of technical sciences, natural sciences and informaticsAll short and first cycle programmes
Higher Commercial Examination (merkantil studentereksamen, HHX)Focuses on subjects related to the fields of business economics, marketing and international economicsAll short and first cycle programmes
EUXCombines a vocational education and training programme with general upper secondary educationAll short and first cycle programmes

7. Useful links